Eye Lid Laxity

Description/Introduction

  • Eyelids protect your eyes from any foreign bodies while keeping them lubricated throughout. Any alteration in {the} shape, position or function of your eyelids can predispose your eyes to a plethora of ailments or interfere with our vision.  
  • Our eyelid is a complex structure consisting of three theoretical layers:
    1. Anterior Layer contains {the} skin and orbicularis muscle
    2. Middle Layer contains  {the} orbital septum and eyelid retractors
    3. Posterior Layer contains tarsus and conjunctiva.
  • Eyelid malpositions include any unnatural or incorrect positioning and orientation of eyelids due to various factors that influence any of {the} three layers of {the} eyelids. They might be caused due to ageing, trauma, scarring, birth defects or medical disease involving any or all of {the} three layers.
  • The most common forms of eyelid malposition are eyelid retraction, ptosis, entropion and ectropion.

Types of Eyelid Malpositions

  • Upper eyelid malpositions: Upper lid ptosis (drooping down of upper eyelid), retraction of {the} upper eyelid (causing apparently bulging eyes), entropion (in-turning of eyelid and lash line) and ectroprion (out-turning of {the} eyelid)
  • Lower eyelid malpositions: Retraction of lower eyelid (lid margin below inferior limbus), entroprion (inward rotation of {the} eyelid margin) and ectroprion (outward rotation of {the} eyelid margin)

Common Consequences of Eyelid Malpositions

  • Decreased vision due to blockage of visual axis by {the} mal-positioned eyelid or secondary to corneal ulcer formation.
  • Irritation of {the} eyes due to an eyelash rubbing {the} cornea or conjunctiva
  • Corneal ulcer due to repeated rubbing of corneal surface by {the} eyelashes or eyelid margin.
  • Corneal or conjunctival dryness due to exposure leading to irritation, discomfort, keratitis or corneal ulcer.
  • Repeated infections of {the} lachrymal sac due to a blocked punctum.

Common Symptoms associated with Eyelid Malpositions

  • Dry eye and irritation
  • Painful eye
  • Disfigurement of {the} eyes
  • Excessive watering of eyes
  • Corneal ulcer
  • Photophobia
  • Decreased vision due to visual axis blockage by eyelids or corneal ulcer
  • Disfigurement

Evaluation and treatment of eyelid malpositions needs to be disease-specific and tailored to {the} patient’s needs. This requires consultation with an eye surgeon familiar with treating various eyelid malpositions. More detailed explanations on each particular eyelid malposition is provided elsewhere for your ready reference 

 

 Eyelid Positional Disorders

Ectropion

Ectropion is {the} medical term used to depict sagging and outward turning of {the} lower eyelid and eyelashes. The margin of {the} eyelid and {the} eyelashes revert (turn out) . This rubbing can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of {the} eyelid, mucous discharge and irritation of {the} eye

Entropion


Entropion is {the} medical term used to depict sagging and outward turning of {the} lower eyelid and eyelashes. The margin of {the} eyelid and {the} eyelashes invert (turn in) . This rubbing can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of {the} eyelid, mucous discharge and irritation of {the} eye

Eyelash Disorders

Trichiasis: Lashes pointing to {the} eye

Other Eyelid conditions

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: Eyelid sponanteously inverts

Procedures
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