- A chalazion is a chronic inflammatory granuloma of a meibomian gland. It appears to be caused by alterations in secretions with retention of secretory material due to obstruction of the ducts.
- Chalazia originating in the Zeis sebaceous glands are termed "external chalazia"; those in the meibomian glands of the tarsus are termed "internal chalazia."
- chronic blepharitis
- acne rosacea.
- soft tissue swelling
- firm nodule
- As the gland fills with oily secretions, it increases in size over weeks.
- The lesion most commonly is seen to bulge externally through the skin and less commonly through the conjunctiva.
- It may possibly remain contained within the tarsus or break through anteriorly beneath the skin or on the conjunctival side, inducing pyogenic granuloma formation.
- medical treatment consists of warm compresses and topical antibiotic ointment.
- When the chalazion does not respond to more conservative medical management after 2 weeks, or when the lesion is large and symptomatic, surgical excision is indicated.
- Once excised, continued treatement with warm compresses is generally helpful
- Once excised, treatment with an antibiotic-steroid ointment such as also helps resolution of the chalazion
- It should be emphasized that any atypical or recurrent chalazion must be regarded as a possible neoplastic lesion and should be biopsied.
- Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the meibomian glands all have been mistaken for chalazia; these are Malignant ( Malignancy is the tendency of a cancer or tumor either to invade the surrounding tissues, to destroy or replace the tissues previously present or to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) tumors.